DESWATER 49-2012-337

Novel removal of water-insoluble disperse dye onto a low-cost
adsorbent prepared from tropical fruit waste

The potential of tropical fruit waste (durio zibethinus husk, DZH) as a low-cost adsorbent for
removal of disperse blue 60 (DB 60) from an aqueous medium was studied under various
conditions such as effects of adsorbent surface modification, contact time, pH, and temperature.
The removal percentage of DB 60 was enhanced by approximately a factor of six when
using the DZH treated by mineral acid compared to the untreated DZH. The functional
groups of DZH before and after acid treatment were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy to elucidate these results. The surface structure of the DZH before and after
adsorption was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Adsorption equilibrium
isotherms and kinetics of the DZH were studied using Langmuir and Freundlich
models, as well as pseudo-first-order, second-order kinetic and intraparticle diffusion equations.
The Langmuir isotherm model agreed well with the experimental data with a maximum
adsorption capacity (qmax) of 54.6mgg
1. The data followed the pseudo-second-order
equation. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption was endothermic and not
spontaneous at low temperature, and was controlled by a chemisorption process. The results
show that DZH could be used as a low-cost material to compare with activated carbon for
the removal of disperses dyes from effluents.